This Meatless Monday, we feature fennel, with growing, storage and prep tips, as well as recipes for Roasted Beet and Fennel Salad and Braised Fennel and Potatoes from Vermont Fresh: A Fruit and Vegetable Handbook.Fennel


Fennel has feathery leaves that grow from a white, swollen stem often mistaken for a bulb.  Although it was widely used in Greek and Roman times, fennel didn’t make it to the United States until the nineteenth century.  Italians, however, have appreciated the anise-flavored vegetable for ages, even when the rest of the world did not.   An American official abroad in Italy discovered the delights of fennel in 1824, when he mailed seeds back home to former President Thomas Jefferson.  Jefferson grew the seeds in his famous garden and came to regard it as one of his favorite vegetables.  Some people find the strong, anise-like flavor of fennel too intense, but cooked properly and tempered with other flavors, fennel can be a true delicacy.

Growing Tip

Despite the fact that fennel originated in warm climates, it is a fairly hardy annual that appreciates cool weather and plenty of water.  Well fertilized soils (enriched with compost) will produce the largest, sweetest “bulbs.”  There are two primary types of fennel: bulbing and non-bulbing.  Non-bulbing fennel is used as an herb and is grown for both leaves and seed, so it is indeed useful, but don’t be disappointed if you grow that type and it doesn’t have a bulb-like base!  Direct-seed fennel in mid-spring, sewing seeds again in mid-summer for another crop in the fall.  If you wish transplant seedlings, start them indoors about 4 weeks before planting outdoors.  If the plants start to bolt (go to seed), remove the bolting stalks.  Harvest fennel when the bulbs are about 3-4 inches across.


Fennel is sensitive to drying out, so it needs to be wrapped in plastic before being stored in the refrigerator.  The bulb will store longer if the stems and leaves are removed, so if possible, use the greenery first.  On its own, the bulb will keep for about a week.  Keep fennel as close to freezing as possible without actually freezing it, which will damage quality.

Nutritional Benefits

Fennel’s flavor comes from a compound called anethole, which may be an anti-inflammatory agent.  In addition to being full of Vitamin C, fennel is a good source of potassium, dietary fiber, folate, iron, phosphorus, and magnesium.


The greenery on fennel is a good indication of its freshness; never choose fennel with wilted or dull tops.  Bulbs should be firm, largely unblemished, and white-green in color.  Smaller bulbs are milder, making them better suited for eating raw.  Larger bulbs can be trimmed at the base, quartered, and then cooked in a variety of ways.  Fennel is especially tasty when roasted or braised.

Meatless Monday Recipe: Roasted Beet and Fennel Salad

Dustin Smith, a volunteer cooking, tasting and testing recipes out of the Vermont Fresh Handbook gave us this recipe.  It’s a customization of the fennel salad recipe in the Handbook.

Fennel and BeetServes 4 – 6 as a side course
Prep time is 1 hour including roasting time of beets


  • 5 medium Beets  (about 1.5 pounds)
  • 1 bulb of Fennel
  • 1 oz. Olive Oil
  • 1 oz. Maple Syrup
  • 2 oz. of Cider Vinegar
  • 2 Tbsp. Dijon Mustard
  • Salt and Pepper to taste


  1. Pre-heat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit.
  2. Wash beets and cut in half the long way.
  3. Toss in olive oil and season with salt and pepper, put in roasting pan and into the oven.
  4. Remove stems from the fennel, trim and reserve 1 oz. of the dill like leaves.
  5. Cut off the woody base of the bulb, cut in half the long way then slice into 1 in. paper thin slivers.  Put these in a medium mixing bowl.
  6. Whisk together the remaining wet ingredients in a separate bowl.
  7. When fork tender, remove the beets from the oven and them cool for a few minutes.  Remove the skin if desired and cut them into match stick sized pieces.
  8. Add them to the fennel.  Add the dressing to the beet and fennel and coat evenly.  Garnish with dill like leaves and season with salt and pepper.

Note:  This salad does fantastic when it sits for a day or two.  Just mix again before serving.

Meatless Monday Recipe: Braised Fennel and Potatoes

Serves 4
(adapted from Gourmet, February 2006, and


  • 1 large fennel bulb with greens
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • ¼  teaspoon black pepper
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 pound red (or other waxy-skinned) potatoes


  1. Quarter bulb and remove the tough base before slicing lengthwise into ¼ -inch thick strips.
  2. Heat oil in heavy skillet over medium heat.  Add fennel, onion, pepper, and salt and cook, covered, until onion is just tender.  Stir occasionally.
  3. Chop potatoes into ¼ -inch thick rounds.  Add to fennel mixture and cook, uncovered, about 3 minutes, stirring often.
  4. Add ½  cup water to the mixture, cover, and cook until potatoes are tender, about 10-12 minutes more.

To receive more recipes and tips on your favorite fruits and vegetables, download Vermont Fresh: A Fruit and Vegetable Handbook.  We also need more volunteer home chefs for this project.

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